THE BALANCE SHEET
Financial statements are the final product of the accounting process. They provide information on the financial condition of a company. The balance sheet, one type of financial statement, provides a summary of what a company owns and what it owes on one particular day.
Assets represent everything of value that is owned by a business, such as property, equipment, and accounts receivable. On the other hand, liabilities are the debts that a company owes-for example, to suppliers and banks. If liabilities are subtracted from assets (assets-liabilities) the amount remaining is the owners share of a business. This is known as owners’ or stockholders equity.
One key to understanding the accounting transactions of a business is to understand the relationship of its assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity. This is often represented by the fundamental accounting equation: assets equal liabilities plus owners’ equity.
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS’ EQUITY
These three factors are expressed in monetary terms and therefore are limited to items that can be given a monetary value. The accounting equation always remains in balance; in other words, one side must equal the other.
The balance sheet expands the accounting equation by providing more informa- tion about the assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity of a company at a specific time (for example, on December 31, 1993). It is made up of two parts. The first part lists the company assets, andmthe second part details liabilities and owners’ equity. Assets are divided into current and fixed assets. Cash, accounts receivable and inventories are all current assets. Property, buildings, and equipment make up the fixed assets of a company. The liabilities section of the balance sheet is often divided into current liabilities
(such as bonds and long-term notes).
(such as bonds and long-term notes).
The balance sheet provides a financial picture of a company on a particular date, and for this reason it is useful in two important areas. Internally, the balance sheet provides managers with financial information for company decisionmaking. Externally, it gives potential investors data for evaluating the company’s financial position.
A.Answer the following questions about the balance sheet. Questions with asterisks (*) cannot be answered directly from the text.
1.What is the final product of the accounting process?
2.What is a balance sheet?
3.Does the balance sheet provide financial information for a long period of time (for example, January to June 1993) or does it provide information for a specific point in time (for example, on June 30, 1993)?
4.What is the difference between assets and liabilities?
5.How is owners’ or stockholders’ equity determined?
6.How can the relationship between assets, liabilities, and owners’ equity be repre- sented?
7.Does the accounting equation always remain in balance? *Why or why not?
8.How can business use a balance sheet? *As a manager, how would you find a balance sheet useful?
1.The final product of the accounting process is the balance sheet.
2.A balance sheet is a final statement that provides a summary of what a company owns and what it owes on one particular day.
3.It provides information for a specific point in time, for example, on Jun 30, 1993.
4.Assets represent everything of value that is owned by a business, liabilities are the debts that is a company owes.
5.Owners’ or stockholders’ equity is determined by subtracting liabilities from assets.
6.It can be represented by the fundamental accounting equation assets equal liabilities plus owners’ equity.
7.Yes, it does. Because one side must equal the other. If not, it must be wrong with the recording.
8. A balance is useful for a business, because it provides a financial picture of a compa- ny on a particular day. It provides managers with financilal information for company decision making.
B.Complete the balance sheet by writing in the correct terms from the list bellow.
assets current liabilities long-term liabilities
liabilities fixed assets current assets
International Manufacturing, Inc
December 31, 1993
|Assets ||Liabilities |
|Current assets ||Current liabilities |
|Cash || |
|Accounts payable || |
|Accounts receivable || |
|Income texes payable || |
|Inventories || |
|Total || |
|Total || |
|Long-term liabilities |
|Fixed assets ||Bonds || |
|Property || |
|long-term liabilities || |
|Buildings || |
|Total || |
|Equipment || |
|Total || |
|Total liabilities || |
|Stockholders' equity |
|Total assets || |
|Common stock || |
|Retained earnings || |
|Total || |
|Total liabilities and |
|stockholders' equity || |
A. Write down any term that you did understand in the reading. Find each term in the reading, look at its context, and try to figure out the meaning. Discuss these terms with your classmates.
B. Look at the terms in the left-hand column and find the correct synonyms or definition in the right-hand column. Copy the corresponding letters in the blanks.
1. G property (line 6) a. assets equal liabilities plus owners’ equity
2. D equal (line 12) b. provide information item by item
3. F condition (line 2) c. indicate by words or symbols
4. B detail (line 21) d. have the same value as
5. A accounting equation (line 12) e. a series of transactions, changes, or functi-ons that bring about a particular result
6. H monetary (line 15) f. the existing circumstance
7. E process (line 1) g. anything owned by a person
8. C express (line 15) h. of or pertaining to money
C. Discuss the following questions with a partner. In giving your answers, try to use the italicized terms.
1.What is the difference between accounts receivable and accounts payable?
2.Why are accounts receivable and cash considered current assets while property and equipment are considered fixed assets? What do you think the difference between current and fixed assets?
3.The owners’ equity in a company equals assets minus liabilities. What is meant by owners’ (or stockholders’) equity?
4.If you were a manager, how would you use the balance sheet to evaluate you company’s financial condition?
5.What do you consider your personal assets? Do you have any liabilities? What are they?
1.Accounts receivable is assets and accounts payable is liabilities.
2.Because they are easly changed into money.
4.The manager know were the company is financial healthy.
Look at the reading to answer these questions.
1.What does each of the following refer to?
LINES WORDS REFERENTS
1 they financial statement
9 this the owners’ share if a business
11 this the relationship of its assets
15 these three factors assets, liabilities and owners’ equity
2.In line 6, what are property, equipment, and accounts receivable examples of?
3.In line 7, what do suppliers and banks refer to?
To whom the company has depts..
4.In lines 5-7. two different phrases are used to incorporate example in the reading. What are these phrases?
5.Another method of clarification by example is the use of mathematical representations. From the reading, copy examples that use mathematical symbols.
a. The fundamental accounting equation.
b. Assets equal to liabilities plus owners’ equity.
6.In lines 28-31, two uses of the balance sheet are given. What are the key words that show each of these uses is in a different area? What uses does each word introduce?
Categories of the balance sheet can be classified to show the relationship between them. Fill in the following blanks based on the information provided in the reading and in Figure 1 (page 79).
Class: Assets Class: Liabilities
Members: Current assets Members: Current liabilities
Fixed assets Long-term liabilities
Class: Current assets Class: Current liabilities
Members: Cash Members: Accounts payable
Accounts receivable Income taxes payable
Class: Fixed assets Class: Long-term liabilities
Members: Property Members: Bonds
Buildings Long-term notes
Using the information in the reading, answer the following questions. Give reasons to support your answers.
1.Which of the following is not a fixed assets: office equipment, machinery, marketable securities, land, and buildings? Why?
Marketable securities. Because its easy to change into money.
2.Are the following liabilities current or long-term: bank loans payable, accounts payable, mortgage bonds payable, taxes payable, and long-term notes payable? List each under the correct heading.
CURRENT LIABILITIES LONG-TERM LIABILITIES
Accounts payable Bank loans payable
Taxes payable Mortgage bonds payableNotes payable